Sages et Sadhus
Comment devenir un sage,
Voici la définition du sage suivant la Bhagavadgita telle qu'elle est: Celui qui, telle une tortue qui
rétracte ses membres au fond de sa carapace, peut détacher de leurs objets les sens, celui-là possède
le vrai savoir.
(Bg II, 54)
Le Seigneur Bienheureux dit: Quand un homme, ô Pârtha, s´affranchit des milliers de désirs matériels créés par son mental, quand il se satisfait dans son vrai moi, c´est qu´il a pleinement conscience de son identité spirituelle.
(Bg II, 55)
Celui que les trois formes de souffrance ici-bas n´affectent plus, que les joies de la vie n´enivrent plus, qu´ont quitté l´attachement, la crainte et la colère, celui-là est tenu pour un sage à l´esprit ferme.
(Bg II, 56)
Celui qui, libre de tout lien, ne se réjouit pas plus dans le bonheur qu´il ne s´afflige du malheur, celui-là est fermement établi dans la connaissance absolue.
(Bg II, 57)
Celui qui, telle une tortue qui rétracte ses membres au fond de sa carapace, peut détacher de leurs objets les sens, celui-là possède le vrai savoir.
(Bg II, 58)
Dans le Srimad-Bhagavatam chant XI, chapitre XI versets 29 à 32 sont décrites les qualités de la personne sainte; sage et sadhu.
The twenty-eight saintly qualities may be described as follows.
(1) Krpalu. A devotee cannot tolerate seeing the world merged in ignorance and suffering the whiplashes of maya. Therefore he busily engages in distributing Krsna consciousness and is called krpalu, or merciful.
(2) Akrta-droha. Even if someone is offensive toward a devotee, a devotee does not become offensive in return. Indeed, he never acts against the interest of any living entity. One may argue that great Vaisnava kings, such as Maharaja Yudhisthira and Pariksit Maharaja, executed many criminals. However, when justice is properly administered by the state, sinful, destructive persons actually benefit from their punishment because they become freed from the severe karmic reactions to their illicit activities. A Vaisnava ruler gives punishment not out of envy or malice, but in faithful obedience to the laws of God. The Mayavadi philosophers who want to kill God by imagining that He does not exist are certainly krta-droha, or most injurious to themselves and others. The impersonalist imagines that he himself is supreme and thus creates a most dangerous situation for himself and his followers. Similarly, the karmis, who are dedicated to material sense gratification, are also killers of the self, because by their absorption in material consciousness they lose all chance of experiencing the Absolute Truth and the truth of their own self. Therefore, all living entities who come under the control of materialistic regulations and duties are unnecessarily harassing themselves and others, and a pure Vaisnava feels great compassion and concern for them. A devotee never uses his mind, body or words to perform any act harmful to the welfare of any living entity.
(3) Titiksu. A devotee forgives and forgets any offense against himself. A Vaisnava is personally detached from his material body, which is made of pus, stool, blood, and so on. Therefore the devotee is able to overlook the obnoxious behavior he sometimes meets with in the course of preaching work and always deals with people as a perfect gentleman. A Vaisnava loudly chants the holy name of the Lord and tolerates and forgives those fallen conditioned souls who are unable to reciprocate properly with a pure devotee.
(4) Satya-sara. A devotee always remembers that he is the eternal servant of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is omniscient, the reservoir of all pleasure and the ultimate enjoyer of all activities. By avoiding activities outside devotional service, a devotee remains fixed in the truth, does not uselessly waste time and thus becomes bold, powerful and steady.
(5) Anavadyatma. A devotee knows that the material world is a temporary phantasmagoria and therefore does not envy anyone in any material situation. He never tries to agitate others or criticize them unnecessarily. (6) Sama. A devotee remains steady and equal in material happiness or distress, fame or infamy. His actual wealth is his consciousness of Krsna, and he understands that his real self-interest lies outside the scope of material nature. He does not become excited or depressed by external events, but remains fixed in consciousness of the omnipotency of Lord Krsna.
(7) Sarvopakaraka. Neglecting one's selfish desires and working for the satisfaction of others is called paropakara, whereas causing trouble to others for one's personal gratification is called parapakara. A devotee always works for the pleasure of Lord Krsna, who is the resting place of all living entities, and thus a devotee's activities are ultimately pleasing to everyone. Devotional service to Lord Krsna is the perfectional stage of welfare work, since Lord Krsna is the supreme controller of everyone's happiness and distress. Foolish persons under the influence of false egotism, considering themselves to be the ultimate well-wishers of others, execute superficial materialistic activities rather than attending to the eternal happiness of others. Because a devotee remains pure and engages in missionary activities, he is everyone's best friend.
(8) Kamair ahata-dhi. Ordinary persons see all material things as objects for their personal gratification and thus try to acquire or control them. Ultimately a man wants to possess a woman and enjoy sex gratification with her. The Supreme Lord supplies the desired fuel that causes the fire of lust to burn painfully in one's heart, but the Lord does not give self-realization to such a misguided person. Lord Krsna is transcendental and neutral, but if one is eager to exploit the Lord's creation, the Lord gives one facility through maya, and one becomes cheated of real happiness by entangling himself in the false role of a great and lusty enjoyer of the world. On the other hand, one who has taken full shelter of Krsna is enriched with perfect knowledge and bliss and is not cheated by the seductive appearances of the material world. A pure devotee does not follow the path of the foolish deer, which is seduced by the hunter's horn and killed. A devotee is never attracted by the sensuous entreaties of a beautiful woman, and he avoids hearing from bewildered karmis about the so-called glories of material acquisition. Similarly, a pure devotee is not bewildered by aroma or taste. He does not become attached to sumptuous eating, nor does he spend the whole day making arrangements for bodily comfort. The only actual enjoyer of God's creation is the Lord Himself, and the living entities are secondary enjoyers who experience unlimited pleasure through the Lord's pleasure. This perfect process of experiencing pleasure is called bhakti-yoga, or pure devotional service, and a devotee never sacrifices his auspicious position of steady intelligence, even in the face of so-called material opportunity.
(9) Danta. A devotee is naturally repelled by sinful activities and controls his senses by dedicating all his acts to Krsna. This requires steady concentration and a cautious mentality.
(lo) Mrdu. A materialistic person will always see people as friends or enemies and thus will sometimes justify cruel or small-minded behavior in order to subdue his opponents. Since a devotee has taken shelter of Lord Krsna, he does not consider anyone his enemy and is never disturbed by the tendency to desire or enjoy the suffering of others. Thus he is mrdu, or gentle and sublime.
(11) Suci. A devotee never touches that which is impure or improper, and simply by remembering such a pure devotee, one is freed from the tendency to sin. Because of his perfect behavior, a devotee is called suci, or pure. (12) Akincana. A devotee is free from possessiveness and is not eager to enjoy or renounce anything, since he considers everything to be Lord Krsna's property.
(13) Aniha. A devotee never acts on his own behalf, but rather for the service of Lord Krsna. He is therefore aloof from ordinary, worldly affairs. (14) Mita-bhuk. A devotee accepts material sense objects only as far as necessary, to keep himself healthy and fit in Lord Krsna's service. He is therefore not entangled by his sense activities and never injures his self-realization. When necessary, a devotee can give up anything for Lord Krsna's service, but he does not accept or reject anything for his personal prestige.
(15) Santa. Those trying to exploit the Lord's creation are always disturbed. A devotee, however, is detached from such pointless activities and understands sense gratification to be diametrically opposed to his self-interest. Being always engaged according to the Lord's desire, he remains peaceful.
(16) Sthira. Remembering that Lord Krsna is the basis of everything, a devotee does not become fearful or impatient. (17) Mat-sarana. A devotee does not take pleasure in anything except serving Lord Krsna and is constantly attentive in the execution of his duties. A devotee knows that only Lord Krsna can protect him and engage him in useful work.
(18) Muni. A devotee is thoughtful and through intelligent contemplation avoids becoming distracted from his spiritual advancement. By intelligence he is freed from doubts about Lord Krsna and confronts all problems in life with steady Krsna consciousness.
(19) Apramatta. One who forgets the Supreme Lord is more or less crazy, but a devotee remains sane by offering his activities to Lord Krsna.
(20) Gabhiratma. As a devotee merges into the ocean of Krsna consciousness, his own consciousness becomes deeper and deeper; ordinary, superficial persons hovering on the material platform cannot fathom the extent of a devotee's awareness.
(21) Dhrtiman. By controlling the urges of the tongue and genitals the devotee remains steady and patient and does not impulsively change his position.
(22) Jita-sad-guna. By spiritual knowledge, a devotee is able to conquer the pushings of hunger, thirst, lamentation, illusion, old age and death.
(23) Amani. A devotee is not puffed up, and even if he is famous, he does not take such fame very seriously.
(24) Mana-da. A devotee offers all respects to others, since everyone is part and parcel of Lord Krsna.
(25) Kalya. A devotee is expert in making people understand the truth of Krsna consciousness.
(26) Maitra. A devotee does not cheat anyone by encouraging them in the bodily concept of life; rather, by his missionary work a devotee is the true friend of everyone.
(27) Karunika. A devotee tries to make people sane and thus is most merciful. He is para-duhkha-duhkhi, or one who is unhappy to see the unhappiness of others.
(28) Kavi. A devotee is expert in studying the transcendental qualities of Lord Krsna and is able to show the harmony and compatibility of the Lord's apparently contradictory qualities. This is possible through expert knowledge of the absolute nature of the Lord. Lord Caitanya is softer than a rose and harder than a thunderbolt, but these opposing qualities can easily be understood in terms of the Lord's transcendental nature and purpose. One who is always able to understand the truth of Krsna consciousness, without opposition or confusion, is called kavi, or most learned.